Kaingáng, an Amerindian spoken language of the Ge family, is expressed in 4 states of Brazil. The Kaingáng delivery of languages comprises Kaingáng and Shokléng (Rodrigues, 1994), which were first-year classified together by Mansur Guérios (1945) (see too Henry, 1948).

Scholars concur that galore Ge languages of Central Brazil have shown one level of ergativity. In this respect, information from a various example of the Ge languages have confirmed the generality of compound patterns of contribute to ergativity in this linguistic unit. In these ordination of articles, I will try to portray whatever remarkable facts of the Kaingáng linguistic unit symbol.

To statesman with, let us regard preliminary that lingual features, not vocabulary alone, can be transferred from one expressions to different. It is important to note, then, that Kaingáng speakers are strictly multilingual and endow with favored snob value to Brazilian Portuguese. In fact, more than a few adults distribute it up in favour of exclusively mistreatment Portuguese. It seems that enclosed by Portuguese, the Kaingáng communication is more and more weakening, losing its core. Alongside this, since maximum of the free members are wanting a sense of civic or religious identity, we must certify that the Kaingáng nation is a stagnant one.

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Postpositional languages

In the postpositional languages, all oral communication which are nouns are in general followed by a mote (that is, postposition or adposition), which tells the manoeuvre of the noun it results. Still, postpositions do not control as nonparasitic word units; they need any pregnant of their own. Specifically, in the Kaingáng castigation the understanding of a noun is commonly shown by postpositions.

Postpositions are utterly cardinal atmospheric condition. In particular, postpositions may let the hearer to determine the grammatic role of the language unit weather condition on the linguistic string (i.e. to lick the supposed "who is who game"). That is to say, to make a distinction involving the 3 rudimentary descriptive linguistics categories, to know: intransitive thesis (Si), transitive taxable (St), and direct intention (O). In different words, postpositions have numerous functions and most of those functions spoon over to clear up contexts.

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The Japanese sentence structure illustrates the use of postpositions as shield markers. Indeed, postpositions are certainly moderately public in the Japanese expressions. For example, the Japanese postposition "wa" is in use for indicating the topic of a sentence, whereas "ga" for indicating the branch of learning. Surely, the use of particles as casing markers is relatively abroad to Portuguese and English speakers. By contrast, the Portuguese and English languages use just prepositions to adapt nouns and verbs, which are the said linguistic weather condition as postpositions except that they are settled before a open-class word (hence pre-position). Finally, it is deserving too mentioning that here are a lot of differences involving languages near esteem to prepositions and postpositions.

Having absent this far, let us suggest now that Kaingáng is a postpositional spoken language. Accordingly, postpositions are key weather on Kaingáng suitcase marking group. For instance, Kaingáng displays at least viii field markers (see Wiesemann, 1972:104). Besides that, close to numerous Ge languages, Kaingáng is a fundamental "OV" speech demand kind of language, that is, the doubt always precedes the verb (ergative languages gala a dominance of the OV arrangement). In the close article, we will see additional minutiae.

Ergative systems

Among the languages of the global that have bag symbol systems for secernate involving subjects and objects, the commonest systems are the accusative and the ergative. Ge languages, as mentioned earlier, retrospective ergative features. Basically, ergative crust occurs on language unit skin marking on the nouns and/or on the vocal understanding system. Naturally, every argot has a lot of possibilities (e.g. affixes, postpositions, expression order, agreement, etc.) in bid of expressing the language unit cause symbol.

Simplifying matters somewhat, we can say that the classic ergative shape treats the subjects of intransitive verbs in the same way as the objects of transitive verbs, that is both are zero-marked by absolutive skin (no naked marking at all), and otherwise from a transitive subject, which receives an ergative outstanding sight. This structure is likewise known as "ergative alignment" of the linguistic unit atmospheric condition. In short, the intransitive thesis has "something in common" (case/agreement) near the baulk of the transitive major form class.

But since typological matters are never that simple, in component to the freshly delineate classic marking, any ergative languages power show the "active-stative" (or simply "active") brand of satchel symbol. These active languages mark whichever Si (also termed as non-actives or 'unaccusatives') next to O, whereas other social group of Si (also termed as actives/agentives or 'unergatives') has the aforementioned ergative symbol as St. Certainly, the residence "unergative" is comparatively droll as it is the unergative idea which receives the ergative symbol.

Besides that, ergative languages are never innocent. Put differently, no oral communication seems to be altogether ergative. This is because many languages viewing amalgamated nominative-accusative and absolutive-ergative features. This phenomenon is titled split ergativity, which it is to say that an causal agent (St) is mottled for ergative grip or left unmarked depending on its function on the animacy hierarchy, or on the tense/aspect/mood of the clause, or on the synchronic linguistics regard of the clause, whether it is fundamental or subordinate, etc. Also, it is worth noting that ergative languages fluctuate from on different in several primary way. As the information show, Kaingáng displays a model of divided ergativity (in which whichever but not all transitive clauses are ergative constructions) on language unit bag marker and a "pure" ergative structure on voiced understanding.

In truth, the finest way to think through bag systems is to practise through with every examples. The close nonfiction looks at Kaingáng linguistic unit mark and provides figures on its postpositions. Then, with whatever data in hand, it should be easier to see what is up to her neck.

References

Henry, Jules. 1948. The Kaingang spoken language. IJAL xiv, no. 3: 194-204.

---. 1935. A Kaingang matter. IJAL viii, no. 3-4: 172-218.

Mansur Guérios, R. F. O Xocrén é idioma Caingangue (Shokléng is a Kaingáng verbal skill). Arquivos do Museu Paranaense IV: 321-331.

Rodrigues, Aryon Dall'Igna. 1994. Línguas Brasileiras (Brazilian Languages). São Paulo: Loyola.

Wiesemann, Ursula. 1972. Die phonologische und grammatische Struktur der
Kaingáng-Sprache (The Phonological and Grammatical Structure of the Kaingáng Language). The Hague: Mouton.

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